Rhetorical patterns of research articles in language teaching journals / Khoirul Anwar

Anwar, Khoirul (2010) Rhetorical patterns of research articles in language teaching journals / Khoirul Anwar. Doctoral thesis, Universitas Negeri Malang.

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Anwar, Khoirul. 2009. Rhetorical Patterns in Research Articles of Language Teaching Journals. Dissertation, the English Language Education School, Graduate Program, State University of Malang. Advisors: (1) Prof.M. Adnan Latief, M.A., Ph.D. (II) A. Effendi Kadarisman, M.A., Ph.D. (III) Dr. Nur Mukminatien, M.Pd. Key Words: rhetorical patterns, research article, intertextuality. This study aims at analyzing scientific articles written by many different native and nonnative English (including Indonesian) writers from journals of language teaching in terms of (a) their rhetorical patterns as reflected in the introduction (b) the rhetorical patterns in discussion sections, and (c) the depth of intertextuality as the unique characteristics among those research articles from the different language teaching journals. The data of this study are taken from journals which represent four groups, that is, national, southeast Asian, European, and international publications. The classified language teaching journals are TEFLIN (representing nationally accredited journals), RELC (the language teaching journal in Southeast Asia), Language Learning (the language teaching journal in Europe), and TESOL (the international language teaching journal). The data are analyzed on the basis of the discourse analysis procedures in a text analysis. To analyze research articles in introduction section, the researcher adopts 3 communicative moves introduced by Swales (1990); first, establishing a territory (MOVE 1); second, establishing a niche (MOVE 2); and occupying the niche (MOVE 3). To analyze the discussion section of research articles, SwalesÔÇÖ 8 moves are used as the parameter: background information, statement of results, (Un)expected outcome, reference to previous research, explanation, exemplification, deduction and hypothesis, recommendations. To analyze the intertextuality, this study follows LauerÔÇÖs (2004) parameter considering three aspects: the disciplinary goals, the inter-text connections, and the historical depth of the articles in language teaching journals. The results reveal that the rhetorical moves in the introduction section proposed by Swales (1990) are consistently employed by three journals of language teaching, especially of the 3 macro moves; establishing a territory, establishing a niche, and occupying a niche. TEFLIN, however, utilizes consistently only two moves that is establishing a territory and then directly followed by occupying a niche. New additional strategies, in fact, are consistently found in the four language teaching journals particularly in the following detailed steps: First, statement about phenomena is developed by stating phenomena followed by the central issue and the central issue followed by phenomena. Second, non integral non-reporting (as the new trends of reviewing previous researches) is developed in three ways: last name followed by date, last name pursued by date and page; and last names of two or more authors followed by date. Third, continuing tradition is developed by two steps: by developing a further research to get more advantages from the previous research, and by describing variables to find out a clear direction. Fourth, outlining the purposes is developed into; explicitly stating the objectives or directly answering the research questions. Fifth, announcing the present research is done by the statement about the research procedures (design, instrument, and research steps). The important moves of writing the introduction section of Research Articles (RAs) are aligned to previous studies, especially in terms of establishing a territory, the dominance of making topic generalization and the least use of claiming a centrality. The findings of this study, additionally, define previous investigations especially on the decreasing trends of using reporting types. In the discussion section, the major findings of the communicative moves of the discussion section include the following. First, Language Learning and RELC consistently occupy the discussion section in four moves by background information and/or statement of results and then followed by reference to previous research, explanation, and deduction. Second, TESOL consistently uses seven moves that is background information and then followed by statement of results, (un)expected outcome, reference to previous research, explanation, deduction, and recommendation. Third, TEFLIN employs different four moves that is background information which is followed by statement of results, explanation, and the last is reference to previous research. The detailed steps are set up particularly in the primary moves employed in the four language teaching journals: First, background information is made by two steps; they are outlining purposes and making a topic generalization. Second, statements of results are developed by showing the main findings. Third, the expected outcome is written by two ways: the expected research outcome from theoretical assumption, and expected outcome based on the objectives of the study. Fourth, reference to previous research is shown by providing support with the present research by the following ways: integral reporting, integral non-reporting, non-integral reporting, and non-integral non-reporting. Fifth, explanation is made by at least two steps they are new claims made from result explanations, and new claims made from research conclusions. Sixth, deduction contains two strategies: explanatory and directive deductions. The study agrees with MirahayuniÔÇÖs findings (2002) showing that 89 ÔÇô 100% native RA writers of the discussion section display a high frequency of occurrence of the seven moves: background information, statement of results, outcome, reference to previous research, explanation, deduction, and recommendation. However, the findings are also not completely supportive with the eleven moves proposed by Dudley-Evans (1988) in that some are absent such as: reference to previous research (comparison), exemplification, hypothesis, and justification. Rather, the findings add SwalesÔÇÖ moves (1990) because two more steps are found, that is, the implications and the limitations. In terms of intertextuality, all four journals utilize a single disciplinary goal. They use journals and text-books as the best inter-text connection with their types of historical depth of 1990s and 2000s. This can be concluded that the recent historical connections within ten to fifteen years behind are considered the best historical depth in language teaching journals. Further studies are hopefully conducted to verify new detailed rhetorical patterns found in the introduction section and the discussion section to see their level of consistency.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Fakultas Sastra (FS) > Jurusan Sastra Inggris (ING) > S3 Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Depositing User: Users 2 not found.
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2010 04:29
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2010 03:00
URI: http://repository.um.ac.id/id/eprint/64397

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