A Study of politeness strategy on speech transcripts: on a new beginning & towards harmony among civilizations / Ayrton Eduardo Aryaprabawa

Aryaprabawa, Ayrton Eduardo (2012) A Study of politeness strategy on speech transcripts: on a new beginning & towards harmony among civilizations / Ayrton Eduardo Aryaprabawa. Diploma thesis, Universitas Negeri Malang.

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Abstract

Keywords: Speech function, Face, Positive Politeness, Phatic, S, H. Politeness has always been an important part of human communication. For a speaker to be able to deliver his idea to a hearer, he needs to consider whether or not his language may give certain impacts, both negatively and positively. The study of Pragmatics and Sociolinguistics has developed the theory of speech function and FTA (Face Threatening Act) as part of the discussion of the politeness strategy. Such theories have triggered the researcher to conduct a research on the two speech transcriptions given by two presidents of two different countries, Obama from USA and SBY from Indonesia. The two speeches were chosen based on the fact that they were centering on one idea of upholding world peace in the modern era. This study focuses on the scheme of speech function utilization of both speakers and its implications related to the FTA minimization strategy in establishing politeness. In doing so, there are three objectives to be resolved. The first objective is to find out the kind of speech function of every utterances occurred on both speeches. Both speakers have been found out of employing six kinds of speech function among the nine types of speech function as proposed by Holmes (1997) & Searle (1975). The six functions that were used are Representative, Expressive, Directive, Commisive, Phatic, and Referential function. The three functions that were not used are Poetic, Metalinguistic, and Declarative function. The second objective was to reveal the portion of each speech function used on each of the two speeches. On the case of Obama, it was found that of the total of 409 utterances, 38,63% was Referential function, 18,09% was Expressive function, 16,63% was Phatic function, 14,67% was Directive function, 9,78% was Commisive function, and 2,20% was Representative function. While on the speech of SBY, it was found that from the total of 287 utterances, 61,32% was Referential function, 17,42% was Expressive function, 14,63% was Directive function, 3,83% was Phatic function, 2,09% was Commisive function, and 1,05% was Representative function. The Third objective is to show the comparative utilizations of the speech functions on both speeches. It is also to show the comparison of which speech function occurred more or less on the two speeches. In the speech of Obama, the biggest speech function used is Referential function. The following rank are Expressive, Phatic, Directive, Commisive , and Representative function, respectively. On the speech of SBY, the biggest portion of the speech function used is Referential function. The following rank are Expressive, Directive, Phatic, Commisive, and Representative function, respectively. The significant gaps of the two situations are on the use of Referential speech function and the priority application of Phatic and Directive function. The Referential function in ObamaÔÇÖs speech took a significantly bigger portion than in the speech of SBY. In terms of Phatic function and Directive function, the ObamaÔÇÖs speech used more Phatic function than the Directive function. On the other hand, the SBYÔÇÖs speech utilized more Directive function than the Phatic function. The last objective to be resolved is to analyze the use of Phatic speech functions related the use of Positive Politeness strategy. A Phatic speech function at the end can be categorized as a form of Positive Politeness strategy that utilizes the scenario of: 1) Exaggeration and gift, 2) Disagreement Avoidance, and 3) Assertion of Common Ground and Integration of S and H in the activity. This finding also proofs that speech function; especially Phatic function can be utilized as a strategy to establish significant politeness stipulation. It is concluded that both, Obama and SBY as the S took benefit on the use of Phatic speech function to express their politeness consciousness to the H. This analysis of ObamaÔÇÖs speech in Cairo and SBYÔÇÖs speech in Harvard has been a tangible evidence of such hypothesis. Nevertheless, such nonconversational communication situation as studied in this research still needs enrichment by future researchers.

Item Type: Thesis (Diploma)
Subjects: ?? ??
Divisions: Fakultas Sastra (FS) > Jurusan Sastra Inggris (ING) > S1 Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris
Depositing User: Users 2 not found.
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2012 04:29
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2012 03:00
URI: http://repository.um.ac.id/id/eprint/11108

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